Often viewed as gypsies, the roughly 12 million Roma are probably the most oppressed and excluded minority in Europe. According to the Open Society Foundation, some of the challenges they face include: "illiteracy, infant mortality, unemployment, segregation in education, hunger and malnutrition, squalid housing without plumbing or sanitation,and substandard health care." Consequently "they have the shortest life expectancy in Europe." Open Society is trying to change that through litigation, education funds, summer camps, involvement with the World Bank, health care initiatives, to name just a few of the efforts. My thanks to Hind Makki for twitting the link to Open Society.