Calvinism is making a comeback today, according to this clip from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly. It's based on the doctrine of predestination which was popular in colonial times. It was formulated by the Swiss theologian, John Calvin, during the Reformation in the early 1500's. Calvin set up a model community in Geneva that was controlled by the clergy. This church-run government or theocracy included simple services without music.
Here' what Calvin says about predestination. "We call predestination God’s eternal decree, by which He determined what He willed to become of each man. For all are not created in equal condition; rather, eternal life is ordained for some, eternal damnation for others."
It's theology is somewhat divisive, according to some Baptists. Others see the debate as a positive thing. Roger Olson, a Christian theologian has an interesting essay called "What’s Wrong with Calvinism?"
You can read more about Calvin here at the History Learning Site.